A Pluralistic Universe (Classic Reprint) by William James

By William James

As those lectures are supposed to be public, and so few, i've got assumed all very certain difficulties to be excluded, and a few subject of normal curiosity required. thankfully, our age appears to be like starting to be philosophical back - nonetheless within the ashes dwell the wonted fires. Oxford, lengthy the seed-bed, for the english global, of the idealism encouraged by means of Kant and Hegel, has lately turn into the nursery of a really assorted frame of mind. Even non-philosophers have all started to take an curiosity in an argument over what's often called pluralism or humanism. It seems to be a bit as though the traditional english empiricism, goodbye placed out of style the following through nobler sounding germanic formulation, can be re-pluming itself and preparing for a more robust flight than ever. It looks like foundations have been being sounded and tested afresh.
Individuality outruns all type, but we insist on classifying each one we meet

Table of Contents

The sorts of Philosophic pondering 1; Our age is turning out to be philosophical back, three swap of tone on the grounds that 1860, four Empiricism and Rationalism outlined, 7 the method of Philosophizing: Philosophers decide upon a few a part of the realm to interpret the total by means of, eight They search to make it appear much less unusual, eleven Their temperamental transformations, 12 Their structures needs to be reasoned out, 18 Their tendency to over-technicality, 15 far more than this in Germany, 17 the kind of imaginative and prescient is the key in a thinker, 20 Primitive notion, 21 Spiritualism and Materialism : Spiritualism indicates varieties, 23 Theism and Pantheism, 24 Theism makes a duality of guy and God, and leaves guy an interloper, 25 Pantheism identifies guy with God, 29 The modern tendency is in the direction of Pantheism, 30 Legitimacy of our call for to be crucial within the Universe, 33 Pluralism as opposed to Monism: The 'each-form' and the 'all-form' of representing the realm

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And manners of the sky. if the feat is impossible by definition ? I am finite once for all, and all the categories of my sympathy are knit up with the finite world as such, and with things that have a history. ' Aus dieser erde quellen meine freuden. ' I have neither eyes nor ears nor heart nor mind for anything of an opposite description. and the stagnant felicity of the absolute's own perfec­ tion moves me as little as I move it. qdeT3 only of the cosmic noy_el. things would be different : we should then share the author's point of view and recognize villains to be as essential as heroes in the plot.

Timeless ' char­ acter. 1·'or pluralists, on the other hand. time remains as real as anything, and nothing in the universe is great or static or eternal enough not to have some history. But the world that each of us feels most intimately at home with is that of beings with Ilislories that play into our history, whom we can help in t111�ir vicissi­ tudrs even as they help us in ours. This satis­ faction the absolute denies ns ; we can neither hel ll nor hinder it. for i t stands ontside of history.

And you will have on the whole. a more reasonable and satisfactory idea of it tban if you insist on the all-form being necessary. The rest of my lectures will do little more than make this thesis more concrete, and I hope more persuasive. It is curious how little countenance radical pluralism has ever had from philosophers. Whether materialistically or spiritualislically minded. philosophers have always aimed at cleaning up the litter with which the world apparently is filled. They have substituted economical and orderly conceptions for the first sensible tangle ; and whether these were morally elevated or only intellectually neat.

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