Abstract Particulars (Philosophical Theory) by Keith Campbell

By Keith Campbell

Many philosophers have held, explicitly or implicitly, finished survey of the world's components would come with the "cases" of traits and relatives which take place at specific locations and instances. it isn't so universal to confirm that such instances are themselves details of their personal correct, instead of deriving their particularity from their organization with a substance. during this learn the writer contends that houses should be details and proposes a primary philosophy which acknowledges such specific houses, or tropes, because the sole basic class. He bargains a brand new model of the Resemblance answer of the issues of the Universals, and in addition argues for theses approximately kin (Foundationism) and the fundamental actual homes (field conception) that are congenial to a trope philosophy, yet are in huge degree autonomous of it, having benefits without reference to the reality approximately homes usually. the ultimate bankruptcy issues to the strengths of a trope research for the philosophy of the brain and of social phenpmena.

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The example will necessarily be inadequate, even as a treatment of the special topic chosen, being restricted not only by limitations of time but by the insufficiency of the lecturer's knowledge. Nevertheless, so far as these limitations permit, we shall try to trace these ideas to their historic sources in the minds of certain philosophers; to observe their fusion; to note some of the most important of their widely ramifying influences in many periods and in diverse fields - metaphysics, religion, certain phases of the history of modern science, the theory of the purpose of art and the criteria of excellence therein, moral valuations, and even, though to a relatively slight extent, in political tendencies; to see how later generations derived from them conclusions undesired and undreamed-of by their originators; to mark some of their effects upon men's emotions and upon the poetic imagination; and in the end, perhaps, to draw a philosophic moral from the tale.

But to speak of them as absolutely unreal, while experiencing their existence in oneself and assuming it in other men, and while expressly pointing to them as imperfections to be transcended GENESIS OF THE IDEA 3I and evils to be overcome, is obviously to deny and affirm the same proposition in the same breath. And a self-contradiction does not cease to be meaningless by seeming sublime. Thus any otherworldly philosophy which does not resort to this desperate subterfuge of illusionism seems to have this world, whatever its ontological deficiencies, on its hands as an unaccountable mystery, a thing unsatisfying, unintelligible, and evil, which seemingly ought not to be, yet somehow undeniably is.

For the genuine knowledge of the Good is for Plato certainly no mere acquaintance with natural laws, and no pragmatic wisdom, even of the highest degree. " 23 The interpreters of Plato in both ancient and modern times have endlessly disputed over the question whether this conception of the absolute Good was for him identical with the conception of God. Stated thus simply, the question is meaningless, since the word 'God' is in the last degree ambiguous. But if it be taken as standing for what the Schoolmen called the 42 THE GREAT CHAIN OF BEING ens perfectissimum, the summit of the hierarchy of being, the ultimate and only completely satisfying object of contemplation and adoration, there can be little doubt that the Idea of the Good was the God of Plato; and there can be none that it became the God of Aristotle, and one of the elements or 'aspects' of the God of most of the philosophic theologies of the Middle Ages, and of nearly all the modern Platonizing poets and philosophers.

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