By W.-U. Müller, C. Streffer (auth.), Professor Dr. Günter Obe (eds.)
Applied genetic learn, genetic toxicology and mutation study examine the mutagenicity of chemical compounds and different brokers. everlasting mutation in genes and chromosomes might be caused by means of a plethora of brokers, together with ionizing and nonionizing radiations, chemical compounds, and viruses. one of the points mentioned in Advances in Mutagenesis Research are: 1. the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms resulting in mutations, and a couple of. the prevention of a inconsiderate creation of mutagenic brokers into the environment.
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3 Spontaneous Frequencies of Micronuclei Table 1 (p. 20) gives an impression of the number of micronuclei in unexposed cells. The term "unexposed" should not be interpreted too strictly, because really unexposed individuals do not exist. , smoking, betel nut chewing). This overview is not at all exhaustive, because literally hundreds of additional data could have been included. We tried to consider conditions as divergent as possible to show the whole spectrum of spontaneous frequencies. Additional spontaneous frequencies of PCEs of various mouse and rat strains and of Chinese hamsters were summarized by Heddle et al.
This seems to be true for most mammals, because the spleen very specifically and rapidly eliminates those erythrocytes with micronuclei. An exception is the mouse (Schlegel and MacGregor 1982), so that after due consideration of different kinetics of appearance of micronucleated cells in the peripheral blood compared with the bone marrow, blood erythrocytes can be studied (Mavournin et a1. 1990). After splenectomy, the rat, too, is suitable for a micronucleus assay using peripheral erythrocytes (Schlegel and MacGregor 1984).
Due to the rapid turnover of cells, the assay carried out in the classical way is not very suitable for chronic exposures. 2 Basic Information on Erythropoiesis and Erythrocytes Essential for a reasonable application of this assay is a thorough understanding of those steps in erythropoiesis that take place in the bone marrow. Figure 3 summarizes the most important events. With regard to micronucleus formation, erythropoiesis starts to become interesting with the cell cycle immediately before the last mitosis preceding expUlsion of the cell nucleus.