By Jacques Chrétien, Donald A. Enarson (auth.), Alimuddin Zumla BSc MB ChB MSc PhD FRCP, Margaret Johnson MD, FRCP, Robert Miller MB FRCP (eds.)
In the 15 years of the obtained immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic a lot has been learnt approximately its ordinary background and issues. it's transparent that the lung is a huge aim organ either for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and a big selection of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary problems. loads of info at the epidemiology, microbiology, immunology, medical positive factors, prognosis and administration of those pulmonary problems has amassed in past times 15 years. Given the big explosion in info, it's now well timed to compile this data during this 25-chapter quantity on AIDS and breathing drugs. The members to this quantity are trendy epidemiologists, medical professionals, microbiologists and scientists from Europe, united states and Africa. Professors Chretien and Enarson supply a masterful account of the epidemiology of lung issues of HIV. Drs Zumla, Rowland Jones and Professor McMichael supply a close precis of the lung immune responses to HIV. They define common lung defenses and talk about the implications of HIV an infection on them. The pulmonary radiological positive aspects of HIV and its issues as visible within the united states and Europe are illustrated by means of Professors Armstrong and Dee and this is often in comparison and contrasted by way of Professor Tshibwabwa-Tumba who brings jointly his giant event of chest X-rays in AIDS sufferers from important Africa. Drs O'Doherty and Miller take care of the makes use of, and power purposes, of nuclear drugs in imaging of the chest in AIDS patients.
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Extra resources for AIDS and Respiratory Medicine
1995). An increased risk of pneumonia due to encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus injluenzae occurs presumably due to a secondary deficiency in humoral response. As CD4 count decreases to less than 200/ILl, opportunistic pathogens such as Pneumocystis carinii, cytomegalovirus and atypical mycobacteria supervene to cause clinical significant infections. Parasitic diseases are endemic in parts of the tropics but there is no convincing evidence that their prevalence or incidence is increasing due to the HIV epidemic.
The anti-inflammatory response, known as the 'Th-2 type response', involves cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and this occurs in association with the generation of antibodies, especially IgG1 and IgE, and allergic responses. , 1993). , 1993) which include both Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles and these are thought to represent uncommitted CD4 + cell populations. B LYMPHOCYTES B lymphocytes, responsible for humoral immunity, synthesize five major immunoglobulin classes (lgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE) which form the pool of circulating antibodies (Bird, 1988).
1992) Identification of human neuralization-inducing regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 envelope glycoproteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. , 89, 461-