Atlas of Endoscopic Anatomy for Endonasal Intracranial by Dr. Paolo Cappabianca, Dr. Alessandra Alfieri, Prof. Dr.

By Dr. Paolo Cappabianca, Dr. Alessandra Alfieri, Prof. Dr. Enrico de Divitiis, Prof. Dr. Manfred Tschabitscher (auth.)

It is simply lately that using the endoscope because the sole visualizing device has been brought in transsphenoidal pituitary surgical procedure with its favorable similar implications and minimum operative trauma. after all, microscopic and endoscopic anatomy are essentially an identical, however the optical distorsion of endoscopic photographs is kind of great in comparison to microscopic depictions. An endoscope lens produces pictures with maximal magnification at its middle and critical contraction at its outer edge. closer photographs are disproportionally enlarged and distant pictures are falsely miniaturized. This optical phantasm may perhaps disorientate a general practitioner who's now not conversant in this atypical situation on the cranium base. This atlas acts as a consultant in the course of the endoscopic anatomy and provides designated descriptions of the preoperative administration and the surgical procedures.

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The right superior hypophyseal artery is identified. 35 I. B. 4. 38 0° endoscope. The optic chiasm and the pituitary stalk appear after the arachnoid dissection. 39 36 0° endoscope. Closer view of the opto-chiasmatic region. I. B. 4. 40 0° endoscope. The chiasmatic cistern has been opened. Closer view of the pituitary gland and the opto-chiasmatic region. A2 = anterior cerebral artery. 37 I. B. 4. 41 0° endoscope. Opening of the sphenoidal plane using KERRISON's rongeurs. 42 38 0° endoscope. The arachnoid of the suprasellar cistern is pulled down .

I. B. 4. 40 0° endoscope. The chiasmatic cistern has been opened. Closer view of the pituitary gland and the opto-chiasmatic region. A2 = anterior cerebral artery. 37 I. B. 4. 41 0° endoscope. Opening of the sphenoidal plane using KERRISON's rongeurs. 42 38 0° endoscope. The arachnoid of the suprasellar cistern is pulled down . I. B. 4. Suprasellar region Fig. 43 0° endoscope. The arachnoid has been opened and the pituitary stalk appears. 44 30° endoscope orientated upwards Closer view of the pituitary stalk.

6. 61 0° endoscope. The floor of the third ventricle has been opened behind the pituitary stalk. 62 0° endoscope. The endoscope is inserted into the third ventricle. 48 I. B. 6. 63 0 0 endoscope. The endoscope is inserted into the third ventricle behind the pituitary stalk and from the left side. The posterior part of the ventricular cavity is explored. 64 00 endoscope. The endoscope is approached closer to the pineal recess. 49 I. B. S. 65 30° endoscope . The endoscope is turned to the right side .

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