By Yoichi Ando
Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural clothier of the Kirishima foreign live performance corridor in Japan, offers a entire rational-scientific method of designing functionality areas. His conception is predicated on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial listening to and listener personal tastes, whose neuronal correlates are saw within the neurophysiology of the human mind. A correlation-based version of neuronal sign processing within the principal auditory approach is proposed within which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, period) are represented by means of an inner autocorrelation illustration, and spatial sensations (sound place, measurement, diffuseness with regards to envelopment) are represented by way of an inner interaural crosscorrelation functionality. jointly those inner crucial auditory representations account for the fundamental auditory characteristics which are suitable for hearing track and speech in indoor functionality areas. saw mental and neurophysiological commonalities among auditory and visible sensations and choice styles are awarded and mentioned. This e-book therefore spans the disciplines of physics, acoustics, psychology, neurophysiology, and song creation, thereby mixing technology, engineering, and art.
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Additional resources for Auditory and Visual Sensations
1 Four orthogonal factors of the sound field identified (Ando, 1983, 1985, 1998) Orthogonal factor Explanation (1) LL (Binaural and spatial factor) Binaural listening level (dB). When the sound pressure level (SPL) at two ear entrances is identical, then this may be replaced by the monaural listening level. Delay time of the first reflection after the direct sound (s). Note that delay times of the second, third, . . are mutually dependent. Subsequent reverberation time after the first reflection (s).
Data for 6 sound fields and 13 subjects (Ando, 1977). (A) Music motif A, Royal Pavane by Gibbons, τ e = 127 ms. (B) Music motif B, Sinfonietta, Opus 48, III movement, by Malcolm Arnold, τ e = 35 ms. Arrows above the plots indicate effective durations of the sound sources. (b) Percent preference for the sound field for a speech segment (speech S, τ e = 12 ms) as a function of single reflection delay time t1 and as a parameter of amplitude A1 of the reflection in comparison with the direct sound.
1 Definition of temporal factors, τ 1 and φ 1 , as features of the normalized autocorrelation function (NACF). τ 1 is the time delay associated with the first ACF peak. 1 0 τ1 –1 0 Delay time τ 0 10 log ⏐φp(τ) ⏐[dB] Fig. 2 Determination of the effective duration of running ACF, τe . 1 τe –5 –10 –15 0 200 100 Delay time τ [ms] The autocorrelation function (ACF) of any sinusoid (pure tone) having any phase is a zero-phase cosine of the same frequency. Since its waveform and ACF envelope is flat, with a slope of zero, its effective duration τe is infinite.