By Aron M Bernstein; José L Goity; Ulf-G Meissner
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Additional info for Chiral dynamics : theory and experiment III : Jefferson Laboratory, USA, July 17-22, 2000
As emphasized by Stern and collaborators, 21 experimental evidence for this to be the case is not available - yet. The picture advocated by these authors may be motivated by an analogy with spontaneous magnetization. In that context, spontaneous symmetry breakdown occurs in two quite different modes: ferromagnets and antiferromagnets. For the former, the magnetization develops a nonzero expectation value, while for the latter, this does not happen. In either case, the symmetry is spontaneosly broken.
Of these the pion, the lightest hadron, at ~ 140 MeV is the closest to an ideal Goldstone Boson. If it is assumed that only the up and down quarks are light an SU(2) symmetry with 2 2 — 1 = 3 Goldstone Bosons are obtained, and identified with the pion(7r±,cl). This is clearly the arena for the most precise comparison between chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) and experiment. Some effects of non-zero quark (meson) masses are discussed in Sec. 1. If the up, down, and strange quarks are assumed to be light then an SU(3) chiral symmetry is obtained and there are 3 2 — 1 = 8 Goldstone Bosons .
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