By International Agency for Research on Cancer
This ninety-first quantity of IARC Monographs comprises reviews of the carcinogenic risk to people of mixed estrogen-progestogen contraceptives and mixed estrogen-protestogen menopausal treatment. The hormonal medicines reviewed during this quantity contain co-administration of an estrogen and a progestogen. reports that didn't supply info at the use of mixed estrogen-progestogen brokers aren't reviewed. it's going to even be famous that this quantity studies purely stories which are publicly on hand and consequently doesn't comprise pharmaceutical try out effects that aren't within the public area.
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Extra info for Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Menopausal Therapy (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans : Volume 91)
G. progestogen-only contraception) in developed countries. Similar declining increases in developing countries may reflect a shift towards greater use of other longer-term contraception, including sterilization, injections of progestogen and intrauterine devices (United Nations, 2004a). , 1994) and thromboembolic events persisted. In addition, the risk for breast cancer, which had been a concern since the introduction of hormonal contraceptives, was also re-emphasized (Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer, 1996a,b).
When available, comparisons of such data for humans and for animals, and particularly animals that have developed cancer, are described. Structure–activity relationships are mentioned when relevant. For the agent, mixture or exposure circumstance being evaluated, the available data on end-points or other phenomena relevant to mechanisms of carcinogenesis from studies in humans, experimental animals and tissue and cell test systems are summarized within one or more of the following descriptive dimensions: (i) Evidence of genotoxicity (structural changes at the level of the gene): for example, structure–activity considerations, adduct formation, mutagenicity (effect on specific genes), chromosomal mutation/aneuploidy (ii) Evidence of effects on the expression of relevant genes (functional changes at the intracellular level): for example, alterations to the structure or quantity of the product of a proto-oncogene or tumour-suppressor gene, alterations to metabolic activation/inactivation/DNA repair (iii) Evidence of relevant effects on cell behaviour (morphological or behavioural changes at the cellular or tissue level): for example, induction of mitogenesis, compensatory cell proliferation, preneoplasia and hyperplasia, survival of premalignant or malignant cells (immortalization, immunosuppression), effects on metastatic potential (iv) Evidence from dose and time relationships of carcinogenic effects and interactions between agents: for example, early/late stage, as inferred from epidemiological studies; initiation/promotion/progression/malignant conversion, as defined in animal carcinogenicity experiments; toxicokinetics These dimensions are not mutually exclusive, and an agent may fall within more than one of them.
Tech. Rep. No. 79/003) IARC (1982) IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, Supplement 4, Chemicals, Industrial Processes and Industries Associated with Cancer in Humans (IARC Monographs, Volumes 1 to 29), Lyon, IARCPress IARC (1983) Approaches to Classifying Chemical Carcinogens According to Mechanism of Action (IARC intern. tech. Rep. No. 83/001) IARC (1984) Chemicals and Exposures to Complex Mixtures Recommended for Evaluation in IARC Monographs and Chemicals and Complex Mixtures Recommended for Long-term Carcinogenicity Testing (IARC intern.