By Robert Curley
A bit greater than a century in the past, Wilbur and Orville Wright accomplished the 1st powered, sustained, and regulated flight of an aircraft, an scan that modified the realm. in spite of the fact that, the rules of flight have been confirmed good prior to then, studied and demonstrated through explorers and inventors around the globe. From the traditional Greek inventor Archimedes to the Wright brothers and past, humankind has sought to free up the secrets and techniques of flight, discovering a fashion for people to defy gravity and slip the bonds that retain us earthbound. The historical past of Flight examines the origins of the hunt, explains the mechanisms wherein flight is feasible, and tells the tale of the way aviation has advanced.
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Extra info for Complete History of Aviation: From Ballooning to Supersonic Flight
Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-61530-725-8 (eBook) 1. Aeronautics—Juvenile literature. I. 13009—dc23 2011018093 On the cover: A jet fighter plane soars above the clouds. Jet-engine fighter planes were used sparingly during World War II, and were refined in the post-war years. , as part of a mass crossing of the English Channel on April 7, 2011. com Introduction Chapter 1: Balloon Flight Elements of Balloon Flight The Pioneers The Montgolfier Brothers The Gas-Hot-Air Hybrid Balloon Smoke and Coal Gas Military Experiments and Petroleum Fuel Balloons Reach the Stratosphere Plastic Balloons Superpressure Balloons Modern Hot-Air Balloons Chapter 2: Flight Balloons and Airships Hot-Air Ballooning Hot-Air Balloon Components Envelope Design Deflation Systems Burners Baskets High-Altitude Ballooning Long-Distance Ballooning Steve Fossett Circles the Globe Airships The Hindenburg Disaster Chapter 3: The Invention of the Airplane The Problem of Lift The Problem of Propulsion The Wright Brothers at Kitty Hawk The Problem of Control Other Aviation Pioneers Chapter 4: Pistons and Propellers The Headliners Lindbergh Crosses the Atlantic The First Airlines From Airmail to Airlines in the United States The DC-3 The Aeronautical Infrastructure Wartime Legacies Postwar Airlines General Aviation Chapter 5: The Jet Age First Experiments World War II Technical Advantages and Challenges The Black Box The Airlines Re-equip Progress in Engines and Airframes Air Force One Avionics, Passenger Support, and Safety Supersonic Flight The Concorde Chapter 6: Helicopters, Hang Gliders, and Ultralights The Helicopter History Autogiros Principles of Flight and Operation Control Functions The Hang Glider Otto Lilienthal The Ultralight Chapter 7: Airports Modern Airports Operational Requirements Runway Configurations Runway Pavements Navigational Aids, Lighting, and Marking Air Traffic Control Cargo Facilities Environmental Impact Airport Security Conclusion Appendix Notable Balloon Flights Notable Balloon Altitude Records Pioneer Aircraft World’s Busiest Airports by Total Passenger Traffic (Enplaning and Deplaning) World’s Busiest Airports by Total Movements (Takeoffs and Landings) Glossary Bibliography Index INTRODUCTION A little more than a century ago, Wilbur and Orville Wright achieved the first powered, sustained, and controlled flight of an airplane, an experiment that changed the world.
Following ones used magnesium alloys and spun aluminum. Current high-altitude pressure cabins are made with various composite materials. Internal pressure is maintained by onboard liquid oxygen supplies and air scrubbers to remove carbon dioxide, moisture, and other body products. Several flights have been made with no cabin at all. Crews in open gondolas wear space suits similar to those that astronauts wear. LONG-DISTANCE BALLOONING Flying for ever greater distances has always been a goal of balloonists.
Hawthorne C. Gray’s fatal ascent to 12,950 metres (42,470 feet) in 1927, the maximum altitude was only limited by the pilot’s need for oxygen. Lacking confidence in the ability to seal an aircraft hermetically, American aviation pioneer Wiley Post and others concentrated on individual pressure suits. Even as late as 1937, prominent aeronautical engineers publicly derided the concept of building airplane pressure cabins. The Piccard invention of the stratosphere balloon opened up new heights for exploration.