Cytokines, Stress, and Depression by Michael Irwin (auth.), Robert Dantzer, Emmanuelle E.

By Michael Irwin (auth.), Robert Dantzer, Emmanuelle E. Wollman, Raz Yirmiya (eds.)

Cytokines were characterised within the early eighties as conversation mole­ cules among immune cells, and among immunocytes and different peripheral cells, equivalent to fibroblasts and endothelial cells. They play a key function within the law of the immune reaction and the coordination of the host reaction to an infection. in response to those organic houses, no one could have anticipated that one decade later cytokines might burst upon neurosciences and permeate into numerous avenues of present learn. In neurology, the relationship among cytokines and irritation, and the demonstration of a pivotal position of a few of those molecules in cellphone dying via apoptosis, caused the research in their involvement in different neurological ailments related to an inflammatory part, together with a number of sclerosis, mind trauma, stroke, and Alzheimer's illness. This circulate all started within the past due eighties, and the corresponding box of analysis, often called neuroimmunology, is almost immediately booming. In psychiatry, despite the fact that, the connection among cytokines and psychological problems was once less obtrusive and took longer to materialize. the 1st indication that cytokines will be interested by psychopathology got here from cancerology and inner medicine.

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Submitted. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. & Glaser, R. (1995). Psychoneuroimmunology and health consequences: data and shared mechanisms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 269-274. Kiecolt-Glaser, J. , & Malarkey, W. B. (1996). Chronic stress alters the immune Immune Correlates of Depression 23 response to influenza virus vaccine in older adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93, 3043-3047. Kronfol, Z. & House, J. D. (1985). Depression, hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical activity, and lymphocyte function.

2. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis. A wide spectrum of alterations in HPT-axis function has been observed in patients with IRS activation or systemic nonthyroidal illnesses, caused by infection, sepsis, or injury (Kushner, 1982; Kaptein, 1986; Nicoloff & LoPresti, 1991). Abnormal low total T3 or T4, lowered basal TSH, and increased free T4 concentrations, may be observed in those conditions (Wartofsky & Burman, 1982; Wehmann, Gregerman, Burns, Saral, & Santos, 1985; Kaptein, 1986; Nicoloff & LoPresti, 1991; Hermus, Sweep, van der Meer, Ross, Smals, Benraad, & Kloppenborg, 1992).

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