By Brayton Polka
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Extra info for Depth psychology, interpretation, and the Bible : an ontological essay on Freud
QXD 12/11/2000 3:06 PM 16 Page 16 Depth Psychology, Interpretation, and the Bible quent chapters. They fail to see that what constitutes the truth of the opposites of life is the ontology that construes them as paradox and not as contradiction. This is readily apparent, as I have already indicated, in their inability to explain how consciousness emerges out of that which is unconsciously primary, primordial, and primitive illusion (for Freud) and truth (for Jung). What Freud and Jung cannot imagine is that there is no concept of the unconscious in, for example, Greek, Trobriand,3 or Hindu thought.
For example, according to his earlier theory, repression is said to be the cause of anxiety, while in his later theory anxiety is said to be the cause of repression. Earlier, libido is identified with the sexual instincts, in contrast with the ego (or self-preservative) instincts. Later, Freud holds that the ego is itself cathected with libido and is, indeed, the reservoir of all libido, a position that he will again reverse when he contends that the id is the reservoir of libido. In the meantime he has replaced his original distinction between sexual instincts (libido) and ego instincts with his final theory of the two fundamental instincts: life or sexual instincts (Eros or libido) and the death instinct.
He is utterly consistent in not renouncing (the exposé of) his primordial inconsistencies. Having begun with the primacy of the pleasure principle, Freud is then compelled to declare, in Beyond the Pleasure Principle, that to adhere to the pleasure principle, in the beginning, is to seek to restore an earlier state of things, that which is inorganic, lifeless, and dead. Just as the inorganic state of things is prior to life, so the only purpose of life, the purpose of the pleasure principle, is to restore the earlier (original) state of death.