Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer (The Biology of Cancer) by Lyman Lyons

By Lyman Lyons

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Elevated levels of bilirubin can mean liver disease and elevated levels of creatinine can mean kidney disease. These abnormal test results can have many causes, and are not specific indicators of cancer. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS If the doctor finds anything suspicious during the physical examination, the routine blood test results, or a screening procedure, he or she orders one or more specific diagnostic tests and procedures that are performed by specialists: imaging techniques, detection of chemicals called tumor markers, biopsy, endoscopy, and cytology.

Lisa was in good health and did not have any conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure that might cause problems during the surgery. About a week before the surgery, Lisa had blood and urine tests 61 62 DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CANCER done to see if she had any risk of excessive bleeding or abnormal liver or kidney function. She also had an X-ray to check her lungs and an electrocardiogram to check her heart. Her blood type was determined in case she needed a blood transfusion during the surgery.

Lister learned of Pasteur’s work and realized that “hospital disease” was likely caused by similar organisms. He needed a way to kill them before they killed the patient. Lister had already heard of a chemical called carbolic acid being used to treat sewage, and began experimenting with it in surgery. In August 1865 he first used carbolic acid in surgery on the wound of a boy with a severe leg fracture. The leg healed and the boy survived. Lister experimented by putting carbolic acid directly on surgical wounds and spraying it into the air in the operating room to kill the organisms.

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