La mélancolie : Vie et œuvre d'Althusser by Gérard Pommier

By Gérard Pommier

Los angeles somme de courses, de manuscrits et de témoignages qui concernent l'œuvre et l. a. vie d'Althusser en feront sans doute un cas aussi exemplaire pour l'étude de l. a. mélancolie que Schreber, lu par Freud, le fia pour l. a. paranoïa. Face à un philosophe qui marqua toute une génération et dont les avancées renouvelèrent radicalement le marxisme, comme celles de Lacan donnèrent à Freud sa pleine efficacité, une query majeure se pose: quelle relation folie et raison entretiennent-elles? Loin de séparer son œuvre et son délire, et sans considérer un quick que los angeles logique de ses thèses aurait été construite pour faire barrage à sa psychose, Althusser a cherché à élucider les issues de jonction, les passes obscures, comme si los angeles démence de l'histoire trouvait sa raison dans celle de sa propre folie. Cet ouvrage ne prétend pas interpréter ce qu'a écrit Althusser, et encore moins imaginer ce qu'il n'a pas écrit; il se suggest de lire ce qu'Althusser appelait lui-même des symptômes, et d'effectuer ensuite des déductions si des recoupements suffisamment nombreux le permettent. Les conséquences en sont examinées aussi bien en auront, dans le champ du "fantasme", qu'en aval, dans celui de los angeles "théorie", dès lors que le philosophe a donné des symptoms explicites qui autorisent cette démarche.

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1982, The research programme of economics and the relevance of psychology, British Journal of Social Psychology, 21, 81-91. , 1983, In defense of external invalidity, American Psychologist, 38, 379-387. Musgrave, A, 1981, Unreal assumptions in economic theory: The F-twist untwisted, Kyklos, 34, 377-387. A. Friedman, 1978, Opportunity costs: Further evidence through an experimental replication, Journal of Accounting Research, 16,400-410. , 1979, Probabilistic functionalism: A conception of research method, American Psychologist, 34, 373-390.

Other psychological researchers have been worried about the difficulties in psychology to explain any great amounts of behavioral variation. Epstein (1980) has, agreeing with Katona, recommended averaging over large numbers of people as one way of reaching more stable relationships and better explanatory results in psychological research. He also advocates more use of time series data and shows by examples the increases in reliability that are obtainable through such procedures. Gregson (1983) has even devoted a whole book to the use of time series analysis in psychology and is a strong advocate for it.

It has caused an intense debate in economics and inspired a large number of theoretical and empirical studies (for summaries, see Sheffrin, 1983; Carter and Maddock, 1984). The theory states that decision makers, whether businessmen or consumers, are so well informed that they can make estimates (educated guesses) of what will happen in the future. They are assumed to utilize information and form their expectations as though they were highly qualified economists and could calculate the future with the help of a set of economic equations.

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