Made in the Philippines: Gendered Discourses and the Making by JAMES A. TYNER


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Additional resources for Made in the Philippines: Gendered Discourses and the Making of Migrants (Routledgecurzon Pacific Rim Geographies, 5)

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More concretely, disciplinary techniques are used for specific purposes by specific institutions and, with respect to this study, those institutions that interact with migrants and migration attempt to discipline particular bodies into particular positions. In sum, the discursive “making” of migrants is essential to the disciplining of migrant bodies; by extension, this disciplining is required for political, economic, or other objectives. For this reason, I suggest a reorientation of migration studies, following Foucault (1980b: 104) toward an engagement with the various mechanisms of power which permit time and labor, rather than wealth and commodities, to be extracted from bodies.

Migrants and migrations are discursively produced through the exercise of disciplinary techniques of power. To the extent that gender (or race) are incorporated into these discourses, spatial patterns of gendered (or racialized) migration follow. These discursive formations, additionally, are inscribed upon bodies for strategic purposes. State institutions, not uncommonly, produce migrants as a means of furthering capital accumulation. Rather than passive receptors of these discourses, however, subjects both comply and resist these inscriptions.

This assistance came in the form of the Bell Mission, headed by Daniel Bell. United States influence on the Philippine political economy, over the next three decades, remained significant. Under American advice, the 27 THE DISCONTINUITIES OF PHILIPPINE MIGRATION Philippine government adopted a development strategy which mainly concentrated on the processing of primary products, chiefly raw materials and agricultural products, for export to the mainland United States (Gonzalez 1998: 59). The Bell Trade Act of 1946, for example, dictated free trade until 1954, followed by a gradual increase in tariffs until 1973, when full duties would be imposed (Kelly 2000: 30).

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